⚡ Hisham Passage Analysis
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Hisham Matar - Men who Tiptoe into their Marital Bedrooms: The Novelist and Dictatorship - SOAS
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Theme Worksheet 1 Links. Theme Worksheet 2. Here's another engaging activity to help students practice identifying themes in short stories. Theme Worksheet 2 Links. After the Muslim conquest of Egypt it became restricted to those Egyptians adhering to the Christian religion. This association may have contributed to making "Copt" the settled form of the name. The Copts are one of the oldest Christian communities in the Middle East. Although integrated in the larger Egyptian nation state, the Copts have survived as a distinct religious community forming around 5 to 20 percent of the population,     though estimates vary.
They pride themselves on the apostolicity of the Egyptian Church whose founder was the first in an unbroken chain of patriarchs. The main body for 16 centuries has been out of communion with both the Roman Catholic Church in Rome and the various Eastern orthodox churches. According to ancient tradition, Christianity was introduced within present day Egypt by Saint Mark in Alexandria , shortly after the ascension of Christ and during the reign of the Roman emperor Claudius around 42 AD. From Alexandria, Christianity spread throughout Egypt within half a century of Saint Mark 's arrival in Alexandria , as is clear from a fragment of the Gospel of John , written in Coptic , which was found in Upper Egypt and can be dated to the first half of the 2nd century, and the New Testament writings found in Oxyrhynchus , in Middle Egypt , which date around the year AD.
In the 2nd century, Christianity began to spread to the rural areas, and scriptures were translated into the local language, today known as the Coptic language , but known as the Egyptian language at the time. By the beginning of the 3rd century AD, Christians constituted the majority of Egypt's population, and the Church of Alexandria was recognized as one of Christendom 's four Apostolic Sees, second in honor only to the Church of Rome.
The Copts in Egypt contributed immensely to Christian tradition. The Catechetical School of Alexandria was the oldest catechetical school in the world. Founded around AD by the scholar Pantanaeus , the school of Alexandria became an important institution of religious learning, where students were taught by scholars such as Athenagoras , Clement , Didymus , and Origen , the father of theology who was also active in the field of commentary and comparative Biblical studies. However, the scope of this school was not limited to theological subjects; science, mathematics and humanities were also taught there.
The question-and-answer method of commentary began there, and 15 centuries before Braille , wood-carving techniques were in use there by blind scholars to read and write. Another major contribution made by the Copts in Egypt to Christianity was the creation and organization of monasticism. Worldwide Christian monasticism stems, either directly or indirectly, from the Egyptian example. By the end of the 5th century, there were hundreds of monasteries, and thousands of cells and caves scattered throughout the Egyptian desert.
Since then pilgrims have visited the Egyptian Desert Fathers to emulate their spiritual, disciplined lives. Saint Jerome , who translated the Bible into Latin , came to Egypt while en route to Jerusalem around AD and left details of his experiences in his letters. Saint Benedict founded the Benedictine Order in the 6th century on the model of Saint Pachomius , although in a stricter form. Coptic Christians practice male circumcision as a rite of passage. The major contributions that the See of Alexandria has contributed to the establishment of early Christian theology and dogma are attested to by fact that the first three Ecumenical councils in the history of Christianity were headed by Egyptian patriarchs.
In addition, the most prominent figure of the council was the future Patriarch of Alexandria Athanasius , who played the major role in the formulation of the Nicene Creed , recited today in most Christian churches of different denominations. One of the council's decisions was to entrust the Patriarch of Alexandria with calculating and annually announcing the exact date of Easter to the rest of the Christian churches. Those who accepted the terms of the Council became known as Chalcedonians or Melkites. Those who did not abide by the Council's terms were labeled non-Chalcedonians or Monophysites and later Jacobite's after Jacob Baradaeus. The non-Chalcedonians , however, rejected the term Monophysites as erroneous and referred to themselves as Miaphysites.
The majority of the Egyptians belonged to the Miaphysite branch, which led to their persecution by the Byzantines in Egypt. Local resistance by the Egyptians however began to materialize shortly thereafter and would last until at least the 9th century. Under Muslim rule, Christians paid special taxes and had lower access to political power, but were exempt from military service. Their position improved dramatically under the rule of Muhammad Ali in the early 19th century. He abolished the Jizya a tax on non-Muslims and allowed Egyptians Copts to enroll in the army. Pope Cyril IV , —61, reformed the church and encouraged broader Coptic participation in Egyptian affairs.
Khedive Isma'il Pasha , in power —79, further promoted the Copts. He appointed them judges to Egyptian courts and awarded them political rights and representation in government. They flourished in business affairs. Some Copts participated in the Egyptian national movement for independence and occupied many influential positions. Two significant cultural achievements include the founding of the Coptic Museum in and the Higher Institute of Coptic Studies in Nasser 's mainstream policy was pan-Arab nationalism and socialism. The Copts were severely affected by Nasser's nationalization policies, though they represented about 10 to 20 percent of the population. Many Coptic intellectuals hold to Pharaonism , which states that Coptic culture is largely derived from pre-Christian, Pharaonic culture, and is not indebted to Greece.
It gives the Copts a claim to a deep heritage in Egyptian history and culture. Pharaonism was widely held by Coptic and Muslim scholars in the early 20th century, and it helped bridge the divide between those groups. Some scholars see Pharaonism as shaped by Orientalism. Today, members of the non-Chalcedonian Coptic Orthodox Church constitute the majority of the Egyptian Christian population. Mainly through emigration and partly through European, American, and other missionary work and conversions, the Egyptian Christian community now also includes other Christian denominations such as Protestants known in Arabic as Evangelicals , Roman Catholics and Eastern Rite Catholics , and other Orthodox congregations.
The term Coptic remains exclusive however to the Egyptian natives, as opposed to the Christians of non-Egyptian origins. Some Protestant churches for instance are called " Coptic Evangelical Church ", thus helping differentiate their native Egyptian congregations from churches attended by non-Egyptian immigrant communities such as Europeans or Americans. In , a group of Coptic activists created a flag to represent Copts worldwide. His name was selected from a glass bowl containing the three shortlisted candidates by a blindfolded boy at a ceremony in Cairo 's St Mark's Cathedral.
Sudan has a native Coptic minority, although many Copts in Sudan are descended from more recent Egyptian immigrants. Modern immigration of Copts to Sudan peaked in the early 19th century, and they generally received a tolerant welcome there. However, this was interrupted by a decade of persecution under Mahdist rule at the end of the 19th century. The Anglo-Egyptian invasion in allowed Copts greater religious and economic freedom, and they extended their original roles as artisans and merchants into trading, banking, engineering, medicine, and the civil service. Proficiency in business and administration made them a privileged minority. However, the return of militant Islam in the mids and subsequent demands by radicals for an Islamic constitution prompted Copts to join in public opposition to religious rule.
Gaafar Nimeiry 's introduction of Islamic Sharia law in began a new phase of oppressive treatment of Copts, among other non-Muslims. However, when the National Islamic Front overthrew the elected government of Sadiq al-Mahdi with the help of the military, discrimination against Copts returned in earnest. Hundreds of Copts were dismissed from the civil service and judiciary. In February , a Coptic pilot working for Sudan Airways was executed for illegal possession of foreign currency. Thousands attended his funeral, and the execution was taken as a warning by many Copts, who began to flee the country.
Restrictions on the Copts' rights to Sudanese nationality followed, and it became difficult for them to obtain Sudanese nationality by birth or by naturalization, resulting in problems when attempting to travel abroad. The confiscation of Christian schools and the imposition of an Arab-Islamic emphasis in language and history teaching were accompanied by harassment of Christian children and the introduction of hijab dress laws. A Coptic child was flogged for failing to recite a Koranic verse. As the civil war raged throughout the s, the government focused its religious fervor on the south. Although experiencing discrimination, the Copts and other long-established Christian groups in the north had fewer restrictions than other types of Christians in the south.
Today, the Coptic Church in Sudan is officially registered with the government, and is exempt from property tax. Living in countries with Muslim majorities Egypt, Sudan, Libya , the size of the population of Copts is a continuously disputed matter, frequently for reasons of religious jealousy and animosity. The Coptic population in Egypt is difficult to estimate because researchers are forbidden by Egyptian authorities to ask a survey participant's religion,  although official estimates state that Coptic Christians represent 10 to 15 percent           while other independent and Christian sources estimate much higher numbers, up to 25 percent of the population.
The Coptic population in Sudan is at about half a million or 1 percent of Sudanese population. The Coptic population in Libya is about over 60, or 1 percent of Libyan population. The numbers of the Censuses in the United States, Canada, and Australia are not fully correct since many Copts listed themselves in the Census mistakenly as either Egyptians, Sudanese, Libyans, Americans, Canadians or Australians and by this way reducing the Coptic population in the Census in the United States, Canada, and Australia respectively. Nevertheless, the Coptic American US population is estimated to number about , estimates of Coptic organizations ranging as high as a million.
Minor communities below 10, people are reported from Jordan 8, Copts ,  Lebanon 3, — 4, Copts ,  Germany 3, Copts , [ citation needed ] Austria 2, Copts ,  Switzerland 1, Copts ,  and elsewhere. Religious freedom in Egypt is hampered to varying degrees by discriminatory and restrictive government policies. Coptic Christians, being the largest religious minority in Egypt, are also negatively affected. Until recently, Christians were required to obtain presidential approval for even minor repairs in churches.
Although the law was eased in by handing down the authority of approval to the governors, Copts continue to face many obstacles and restrictions in building new churches. These restrictions do not apply for building mosques. The Coptic community has been targeted by hate crimes by Islamic extremists. The most significant was the —01 El Kosheh attacks, in which Muslims and Christians were involved in bloody inter-religious clashes following a dispute between a Muslim and a Christian.
In , one person attacked three churches in Alexandria , killing one person and injuring 5— Members of U. Congress have expressed concern about "human trafficking" of Coptic women and girls who are victims of abductions, forced conversion to Islam, sexual exploitation and forced marriage to Muslim men. There also used to be one Coptic governor out of 25, that of the upper Egyptian governorate of Qena , and is the first Coptic governor in decades due to the higher concentration of Copts in Upper Egypt.
In addition, Naguib Sawiris , Nassef Sawiris  and Samih Sawiris ,  who are extremely successful businessmen and one of the world's wealthiest people, are Copts. While freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Egyptian constitution, according to Human Rights Watch , "Egyptians are able to convert to Islam generally without difficulty, but Muslims who convert to Christianity face difficulties in getting new identity papers and some have been arrested for allegedly forging such documents.
Security agencies will sometimes claim that such conversions from Islam to Christianity or occasionally vice versa may stir social unrest, and thereby justify themselves in wrongfully detaining the subjects, insisting that they are simply taking steps to prevent likely social troubles from happening. In August , following the 3 July Coup and clashes between the military and Morsi supporters, there were widespread attacks on Coptic churches and institutions in Egypt by Sunni Muslims. USA Today reported that "forty churches have been looted and torched, while 23 others have been attacked and heavily damaged". More than 45 churches across Egypt were attacked. The Party's page claimed that the Coptic Church had declared "war against Islam and Muslims" and that "The Pope of the Church is involved in the removal of the first elected Islamist president.
The Pope of the Church alleges Islamic Sharia is backwards, stubborn, and reactionary. The anti-Coptic incitement and threats continued unabated up to the demonstrations of June 30 and, with the removal of President Morsi … morphed into sectarian violence, which was sanctioned by … the continued anti-Coptic rhetoric heard from the group's leaders on the stage … throughout the sit-in. Coptic women and girls are abducted, forced to convert to Islam and marry Muslim men. Further allegations of organised abduction of Copts, trafficking and police collusion continue in In April , a bipartisan group of 17 members of the U. Congress expressed concern to the State Department's Trafficking in Persons Office about Coptic women who faced "physical and sexual violence, captivity The Coptic language is the most recent stage of the Egyptian language.
Coptic should more correctly be used to refer to the script rather than the language itself. Even though this script was introduced as far back as the 1st century BC, it has been applied to the writing of the Egyptian language from the 1st century AD to the present day. Today, Coptic is the native language of only about Copts around the world. It is taught worldwide in many prestigious institutions, but its teaching within Egypt remains limited.
The Coptic calendar , also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church and also by Ethiopia as its official calendar with different names. This calendar is based on the ancient Egyptian calendar. To avoid the calendar creep of the latter, a reform of the ancient Egyptian calendar was introduced at the time of Ptolemy III Decree of Canopus, in BC which consisted of the intercalation of a sixth epagomenal day every fourth year. However, this reform was opposed by the Egyptian priests, and the idea was not adopted until 25 BC, when the Roman Emperor Augustus formally reformed the calendar of Egypt , keeping it forever synchronized with the newly introduced Julian calendar.
To distinguish it from the Ancient Egyptian calendar, which remained in use by some astronomers until medieval times, this reformed calendar is known as the Coptic calendar. Its years and months coincide with those of the Ethiopian calendar but have different numbers and names. The Coptic year is the extension of the ancient Egyptian civil year, retaining its subdivision into the three seasons, four months each. The three seasons are commemorated by special prayers in the Coptic Liturgy.
This calendar is still in use all over Egypt by farmers to keep track of the various agricultural seasons. The Coptic calendar has 13 months, 12 of 30 days each and an intercalary month at the end of the year of 5 or 6 days, depending whether the year is a leap year or not. The Feast of Neyrouz marks the first day of the Coptic year. Ignorant of the Egyptian language for the most part, the Arabs confused the Egyptian new year's celebrations, which the Egyptians called the feast of Ni-Yarouou the feast of the rivers , with the Persian feast of Nowruz.
Its celebration falls on the 1st day of the month of Thout , the first month of the Egyptian year, which for AD to usually coincides with 11 September, except before a Gregorian leap year when it's September Coptic years are counted from AD, the year Diocletian became Roman Emperor, whose reign was marked by tortures and mass executions of Christians, especially in Egypt. Islam, in its canonical texts, is an unapologetically supremacist religion. The resulting potential for hadith fraud surrounding a holy lawgiver Muhammad is enormous, Spencer observes. And as is always the case with weapons in wartime, they began to be manufactured wholesale.
Parallel problems plague the Sira or Islamic biography of Muhammad that canonically supplements the hadith in Islamic Sunna or tradition. All accounts of Muhammad ultimately derive from a biography written by Ibn Hisham , who died in almost exactly two centuries after Muhammad, a historian who in turn edited portions of a Muhammad history compiled by Ibn Ishaq, who died in This evidentiary record is obviously deficient, Spencer assesses.Coptic Orthodox Church. Rahmatullah Kairanawiamong other Hisham Passage Analysis writers, argued that this parable is referred Analysis Of To A Mouse, By Raymond Barrio in Qur'an Hermeneutics Pesher Midrash Hisham Passage Analysis. As the civil war Hisham Passage Analysis throughout the s, the government Hisham Passage Analysis its religious Hisham Passage Analysis on Hisham Passage Analysis south. Main Idea Worksheet 4.