① Spectrophotometry Essay

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Spectrophotometry Essay

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You can prepare for the full degree course if you do not have the appropriate qualifications for direct entry by undertaking our foundation course first. You can transfer between most of our biological sciences degree courses at the end of your first year or, in some cases, later. Teaching and learning will be delivered using a variety of methods. As you progress through the course, an increasing emphasis will be placed on independent study, and this reflects you applying your knowledge and skills in individual projects. The course contains strong practical elements. In year 2, the Experimental Design modules semester 1 will enable you to develop experimental skills, which are closely aligned to your degree programme.

In Semester 2, you will take an intensive, degree specific Research Skills Module RSM module where you will have the opportunity to learn key experimental skills and design and analyse simple experiments relevant to your degree. Students studying Organismal degrees, such as Biology, have the opportunity to take a field course instead of a laboratory based practical unit in Semester 2. For students taking BSc Hons Zoology, a field course is a compulsory component of both year 1 and year 2. In year 3, BSc Hons students carry out an independent research project. This can involve laboratory or field based research or you can opt to conduct a non- laboratory based project, such as education, business and science media projects.

All of these projects contain a research element and will require you to both generate and statistically analyse data. For the MSci programmes, in year 3, a suite of Experimental Skill modules tailored to groups of degree programmes enables training in more complex experimental skills to take place in preparation for the 7-month MSci research project in year 4. The course is assessed by a variety of methods, each appropriate to the topic being assessed. These methods include coursework exercises, written examinations, online examinations, presentations and practical demonstrations. You will also have many opportunities to self-assess your progress using online quizzes and tutorial exercises.

Lecture units are usually assessed by e-learning activities during the unit and multiple choice exams at the end of the semester. Lecture units are usually assessed by essay-based exam. Students also take two honours papers: degree programme-specific examinations comprising essays and data-handling problems. A significant part of the year accounting for one-quarter of the overall degree mark is the project, which is assessed by literature review and a written report. In addition, you will study the aspects of organic, inorganic and physical chemistry that are relevant to biological systems.

Year 1 also provides an introduction to the essential data handling and laboratory skills required for all biological scientists. The course unit details given below are subject to change, and are the latest example of the curriculum available on this course of study. You will continue your studies in greater depth and begin to specialise. You will also undertake an extended essay on a subject-specific topic. In the Research Skills unit, you have the opportunity to carry out techniques that are widely used in current biological science research.

Final year topics reflect the current hotspots of bioscience endeavour and the research interests of our staff, and are constantly being updated. You will undertake an independent in-depth research project that may involve supervised practical work in a laboratory, or you may choose to work on e-learning, educational, data analysis, bioinformatics or enterprise topics. Our modern teaching labs are equipped for a range of biological and biomedical techniques. The following are just a few of the techniques you could undertake during your degree:.

Our computing facilities include access to over PCs in dedicated clusters and e-learning tools including online lecture notes, discussion boards, lecture podcasts and quizzes. As a final year student, you have the opportunity to undertake a project in the labs of our world-class bioscience researchers. To support our research, we have extensive research facilities equipped with high-quality technology. In fact the measurement of the intensity of transmitted light is a function of the concentration of dispersed phase and this becomes the basis of turbid metric analysis.

Nephelometry is somewhat different from turbidimetry. The measurement of intensity of scattered light as a function of concentration of dispersed phase is the basis of analysis of nephelometry. It is very important to note that in nephelometry incident and scattered light are of same wavelength whereas in fluorimeter in fluorimetry scattered light is of longer wavelength than incident light. This equation 1 is known as the basic equation of turbidimetry and is similar to Bouguer — Lambert — Beer equation:. In turbidimetric and nephelometric analysis a number of conditions must be satisfied for a successful working.

As the amount of light scattered or absorbed depends on size of the particles in the solution, hence correct results will depend upon method of preparing the suspensions and on reproducibility of their optical properties. There are following factors which influence optical properties of suspension and particle size:. Monochromatic radiation is used both in turbidimeters and nephelometer. Generally a mercury arc or a laser with special filter combinations for isolating one of its emission lines is the most suitable source.

The tungsten lamp which is polychromatic source is used when one has to determine the concentration of a particular substance. It has been observed that even in such a case blue spectral region gives the best results. Generally a cell with a rectangular cross section is selected for the study. We can also use cylindrical cells having flat faces where entering and existing beams are passed. The walls through which light beam are not to pass, are coated black so as to absorb unwanted radiation. The photo-mutliplier tubes are used as detectors in case of nephelometers because intensity of scattered radiation is generally very small.

There are some nephelometers where detector is mounted on a circular disc which allows measurement at many angles, i. A powerful light from electric lamp passes through filter which is just put in place only where instrument is to be utilized for luminescence studies, and falls on glass plate. Some part of beam is reflected from this plate and falls on glass attenuator, while part of it enters cell filled with solution under study.

Now the light beam passing through cell is extinguished in light trap. The part of luminous flux reflected by particles in solution passes through lens, adjustable diaphragm, lens and that is directed by rhombic prism through filter into eye piece where it illuminates only one half of the optical field. The luminous flux from attenuator traverses a similar path through lens, adjustable diaphragm, lens, rhombic prism, filter and enters eye piece to illuminate second half of the optical field. Now by varying slit width of adjustable diaphragms and luminous fluxes can be equalized, i. While working with this instrument solution under study should be placed in cell, dials of adjustable diaphragms are set to zero and intensities of luminous fluxes are brought close by putting in interchangeable attenuators.

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