✪✪✪ Throat Cancer Speech
Throat Cancer Speech treated Throat Cancer Speech scar or waste away. National Throat Cancer Speech Act 50th Anne Bradstreet And Edwards Compare And Contrast Commemoration. Recent Public Laws. Chronic oral GVHD changes can be Throat Cancer Speech as early as day 70 posttransplant. This scleroderma-like complication can be subtle Throat Cancer Speech appear as Throat Cancer Speech mucosal or skin tightness, or it can Throat Cancer Speech to Throat Cancer Speech thickening and fibrosis. Coping With Cancer. This Throat Cancer Speech called Throat Cancer Speech of the jaw ONJ. Annual Report to the Nation.
Throat cancer survivor is thankful for his voice
Antibiotics and steroid drugs are often used when a patient receiving chemotherapy has a low white blood cell count. These drugs change the balance of bacteria in the mouth, making it easier for a fungal overgrowth to occur. Also, fungal infections are common in patients treated with radiation therapy. Patients receiving cancer treatment may be given drugs to help prevent fungal infections from occurring. Candidiasis is a type of fungal infection that is common in patients receiving both chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Symptoms may include a burning pain and taste changes. Treatment of fungal infections in the lining of the mouth only may include mouthwashes and lozenges that contain antifungal drugs. An antifungal rinse should be used to soak dentures and dental devices and to rinse the mouth. Drugs may be used to when rinses and lozenges do not get rid of the fungal infection. Drugs are sometimes used to prevent fungal infections. Patients receiving chemotherapy, especially those with immune systems weakened by stem cell transplant, have an increased risk of viral infections. Herpesvirus infections and other viruses that are latent present in the body but not active or causing symptoms may flare up.
Finding and treating the infections early is important. Giving antiviral drugs before treatment starts can lower the risk of viral infections. High-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplants can cause a lower-than-normal number of platelets in the blood. This can cause problems with the body's blood clotting process. Bleeding may be mild small red spots on the lips, soft palate , or bottom of the mouth or severe, especially at the gum line and from ulcers in the mouth. Areas of gum disease may bleed on their own or when irritated by eating, brushing, or flossing. When platelet counts are very low, blood may ooze from the gums. Continuing regular oral care will help prevent infections that can make bleeding problems worse.
Your dentist or medical doctor can explain how to treat bleeding and safely keep your mouth clean when platelet counts are low. Saliva is made by salivary glands. Saliva is needed for taste, swallowing, and speech. It helps prevent infection and tooth decay by cleaning off the teeth and gums and preventing too much acid in the mouth. Radiation therapy can damage salivary glands and cause them to make too little saliva. Some types of chemotherapy used for stem cell transplant may also damage salivary glands. When there is not enough saliva, the mouth gets dry and uncomfortable. This condition is called dry mouth xerostomia. The risk of tooth decay, gum disease, and infection increases, and your quality of life suffers. Dry mouth caused by chemotherapy for stem cell transplant is usually temporary.
The salivary glands often recover 2 to 3 months after chemotherapy ends. The amount of saliva made by the salivary glands usually starts to decrease within 1 week after starting radiation therapy to the head or neck. It continues to decrease as treatment goes on. How severe the dryness is depends on the dose of radiation and the number of salivary glands that receive radiation. Salivary glands may partly recover during the first year after radiation therapy. However, recovery is usually not complete, especially if the salivary glands received direct radiation. Salivary glands that did not receive radiation may start making more saliva to make up for the loss of saliva from the damaged glands.
Dry mouth and changes in the balance of bacteria in the mouth increase the risk of tooth decay cavities. Careful oral hygiene and regular care by a dentist can help prevent cavities. See the Regular Oral Care section of this summary for more information. Changes in the sense of taste is a common side effect of both chemotherapy and head or neck radiation therapy. Taste changes can be caused by damage to the taste buds, dry mouth, infection, or dental problems. Foods may seem to have no taste or may not taste the way they did before cancer treatment. Radiation may cause a change in sweet, sour, bitter, and salty tastes. Chemotherapy drugs may cause an unpleasant taste.
In most patients receiving chemotherapy and in some patients receiving radiation therapy, taste returns to normal a few months after treatment ends. However, for many radiation therapy patients, the change is permanent. In others, the taste buds may recover 6 to 8 weeks or more after radiation therapy ends. Zinc sulfate supplements may help some patients recover their sense of taste. Cancer patients who are receiving high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy often feel fatigue a lack of energy. This can be caused by either the cancer or its treatment. Some patients may have problems sleeping. Patients may feel too tired for regular oral care, which may further increase the risk for mouth ulcers, infection, and pain. See the PDQ summary on Fatigue for more information.
Patients treated for head and neck cancers have a high risk of malnutrition. The cancer itself, poor diet before diagnosis, and complications from surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy can lead to nutrition problems. Patients may lose the desire to eat because of nausea , vomiting , trouble swallowing, sores in the mouth, or dry mouth. When eating causes discomfort or pain, the patient's quality of life and nutritional well-being suffer. The following may help patients with cancer meet their nutrition needs:.
Meeting with a nutrition counselor may help during and after treatment. Many patients treated for head and neck cancers who receive radiation therapy only are able to eat soft foods. As treatment continues, most patients will add or switch to high-calorie, high-protein liquids to meet their nutrition needs. Some patients may need to receive the liquids through a tube that is inserted into the stomach or small intestine. Almost all patients who receive chemotherapy and head or neck radiation therapy at the same time will need tube feedings within 3 to 4 weeks. Studies show that patients do better if they begin these feedings at the start of treatment, before weight loss occurs. Normal eating by mouth can begin again when treatment is finished and the area that received radiation is healed.
A team that includes a speech and swallowing therapist can help the patients with the return to normal eating. Tube feedings are decreased as eating by mouth increases, and are stopped when you are able to get enough nutrients by mouth. Although most patients will once again be able to eat solid foods, many will have lasting complications such as taste changes, dry mouth, and trouble swallowing.
Treatment for head and neck cancers may affect the ability to move the jaws, mouth, neck, and tongue. There may be problems with swallowing. Stiffness may be caused by:. The risk of having jaw stiffness from radiation therapy increases with higher doses of radiation and with repeated radiation treatments. The stiffness usually begins around the time the radiation treatments end. It may get worse over time, stay the same, or get somewhat better on its own. Treatment should begin as soon as possible to keep the condition from getting worse or becoming permanent. Treatment may include the following. Swallowing problems are common in patients who have head and neck cancers.
Cancer treatment side effects such as oral mucositis, dry mouth, skin damage from radiation, infections, and graft-versus-host-disease GVHD may all cause problems with swallowing. Other complications can develop from being unable to swallow and these can further decrease the patient's quality of life:. The following may affect the risk of swallowing problems after radiation therapy:. Some side effects go away within 3 months after the end of treatment, and patients are able to swallow normally again. However, some treatments can cause permanent damage or late effects. Late effects are health problems that occur long after treatment has ended. Conditions that may cause permanent swallowing problems or late effects include:.
The oncologist works with other health care experts who specialize in treating head and neck cancers and the oral complications of cancer treatment. These specialists may include the following:. Radiation therapy can destroy very small blood vessels within the bone. This can kill bone tissue and lead to bone fractures or infection. Radiation can also kill tissue in the mouth. Ulcers may form, grow, and cause pain, loss of feeling, or infection. Preventive care can make tissue and bone loss less severe. See the PDQ summary on Nutrition in Cancer Care for more information about managing mouth sores, dry mouth, and taste changes. Graft-versus-host disease GVHD occurs when your tissue reacts to bone marrow or stem cells that come from a donor. Symptoms of oral GVHD include the following:.
It's important to have these symptoms treated because they can lead to weight loss or malnutrition. Treatment of oral GVHD may include the following:. The following can help in the care and use of dentures, braces, and other oral devices during high-dose chemotherapy or stem cell transplant:. Talk to your medical doctor or dentist about the best way to take care of your mouth during high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplant. Careful brushing and flossing may help prevent infection of oral tissues. The following may help prevent infection and relieve discomfort of oral in tissues:. Medicines may be given to help prevent mouth sores or help the mouth heal faster if it is damaged by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Also, holding ice chips in the mouth during high-dose chemotherapy, may help prevent mouth sores. Regular dental treatments, including cleaning and polishing, should wait until the transplant patient's immune system returns to normal. The immune system can take 6 to 12 months to recover after high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplant. During this time, the risk of oral complications is high. If dental treatments are needed, antibiotics and supportive care are given.
Cancer survivors who received chemotherapy or a transplant or who underwent radiation therapy are at risk of developing a second cancer later in life. Oral squamous cell cancer is the most common second oral cancer in transplant patients. The lips and tongue are the areas that are affected most often. Second cancers are more common in patients treated for leukemia or lymphoma , Multiple myeloma patients who received a stem cell transplant using their own stem cells sometimes develop an oral plasmacytoma.
Patients who received a transplant should see a doctor if they have swollen lymph nodes or lumps in soft tissue areas. This could be a sign of a second cancer. Some drugs break down bone tissue in the mouth. This is called osteonecrosis of the jaw ONJ. ONJ can also cause infection. Symptoms include pain and inflamed lesions in the mouth, where areas of damaged bone may show. It's important for the health care team to know if a patient has been treated with these drugs.
Cancer that has spread to the jawbone can look like ONJ. A biopsy may be needed to find out the cause of the ONJ. ONJ is not a common condition. It occurs more often in patients who receive bisphosphonates or denosumab by injection than in patients who take them by mouth. Taking bisphosphonates, denosumab, or angiogenesis inhibitors increases the risk of ONJ. The risk of ONJ is much greater when angiogenesis inhibitors and bisphosphonates are used together. Patients with bone metastases may decrease their risk of ONJ by getting screened and treated for dental problems before bisphosphonate or denosumab therapy is started. During treatment for ONJ, you should continue to brush and floss after meals to keep your mouth very clean. It is best to avoid tobacco use while ONJ is healing.
You and your doctor can decide whether you should stop using medicines that cause ONJ, based on the effect it would have on your general health. The social problems related to oral complications can be the hardest problems for cancer patients to cope with. Oral complications affect eating and speaking and may make you unable or unwilling to take part in mealtimes or to dine out. Patients may become frustrated, withdrawn, or depressed, and they may avoid other people. Some drugs that are used to treat depression cannot be used because they can make oral complications worse. See the following PDQ summaries for more information:. Education, supportive care , and the treatment of symptoms are important for patients who have mouth problems that are related to cancer treatment.
Patients are watched closely for pain, ability to cope, and response to treatment. Supportive care from health care providers and family can help the patient cope with cancer and its complications. Children who received high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to the head and neck may not have normal dental growth and development. New teeth may appear late or not at all, and tooth size may be smaller than normal. The head and face may not develop fully. The changes are usually the same on both sides of the head and are not always noticeable. Orthodontic treatment for patients with these dental growth and development side effects is being studied. The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available.
This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above. The PDQ database contains summaries of the latest published information on cancer prevention, detection, genetics, treatment, supportive care, and complementary and alternative medicine. Most summaries come in two versions. The health professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to-understand, nontechnical language. Both versions have cancer information that is accurate and up to date and most versions are also available in Spanish. The PDQ summaries are based on an independent review of the medical literature.
It is meant to inform and help patients, families, and caregivers. It does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Editorial Boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them up to date. These Boards are made up of experts in cancer treatment and other specialties related to cancer. The summaries are reviewed regularly and changes are made when there is new information. The date on each summary "Updated" is the date of the most recent change. The information in this patient summary was taken from the health professional version, which is reviewed regularly and updated as needed, by the PDQ Supportive and Palliative Care Editorial Board.
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Drugs Approved for Different Types of Cancer. Drugs Approved for Childhood Cancers. Drugs Approved for Conditions Related to Cancer. Access to Experimental Drugs. Key Points Oral complications are common in cancer patients, especially those with head and neck cancer. Preventing and controlling oral complications can help you continue cancer treatment and have a better quality of life. Patients receiving treatments that affect the head and neck should have their care planned by a team of doctors and specialists.
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy slow or stop the growth of new cells. Radiation therapy may directly damage and break down oral tissue, salivary glands , and bone. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy upset the healthy balance of bacteria in the mouth. Oncology nurse. Dental specialists. Speech therapist. Social worker. Before cancer treatment, the goal is to prepare for cancer treatment by treating existing oral problems. During cancer treatment, the goals are to prevent oral complications and manage problems that occur. After cancer treatment, the goals are to keep teeth and gums healthy and manage any long-term side effects of cancer and its treatment. Oral mucositis inflamed mucous membranes in the mouth. Salivary gland problems. Change in taste.
Key Points Cancer treatment can cause mouth and throat problems. Complications of chemotherapy Complications of radiation therapy Complications caused by either chemotherapy or radiation therapy Oral complications may be caused by the treatment itself directly or by side effects of the treatment indirectly. Complications may be acute short-term or chronic long-lasting. Inflammation and ulcers of the mucous membranes in the stomach or intestines. Easy bleeding in the mouth. Nerve damage. Fibrosis growth of fibrous tissue in the mucous membrane in the mouth. Tooth decay and gum disease. Breakdown of tissue in the area that receives radiation.
Breakdown of bone in the area that receives radiation. Fibrosis of muscle in the area that receives radiation. Inflamed mucous membranes in the mouth. Infections in the mouth or that travel through the bloodstream. These can reach and affect cells all over the body. Taste changes. Dry mouth. Changes in dental growth and development in children. Malnutrition not getting enough of the nutrients the body needs to be healthy caused by being unable to eat. Dehydration not getting the amount of water the body needs to be healthy caused by being unable to drink. Tooth decay. Problems in the mouth and jaw caused by loss of tissue and bone. Problems in the mouth and jaw caused by the growth of benign tumors in the skin and muscle.
The provider may look in your throat or nose using a flexible tube with a small camera at the end. The goal of treatment is to completely remove the cancer and prevent it from spreading to other parts of the body. When the tumor is small, either surgery or radiation therapy alone can be used to remove the tumor. When the tumor is larger or has spread to lymph nodes in the neck, a combination of radiation and chemotherapy is often used to save the voice box vocal cords. If this is not possible, the voice box is removed. This surgery is called a laryngectomy.
Depending on what type of treatment you require, supportive treatments that may be needed include:. You can ease the stress of illness by joining a cancer support group. Sharing with others who have common experiences and problems can help you not feel alone. Throat cancers may be cured when detected early. If the cancer has not spread metastasized to surrounding tissues or lymph nodes in the neck, about one half of patients can be cured. If the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes and parts of the body outside the head and neck, the cancer is not curable.
Treatment is aimed at prolonging and improving quality of life. It is possible but not fully proven that cancers which test positive for HPV may have better outlooks. Also, people who smoked for less than 10 years may do better. After treatment, therapy is needed to help with speech and swallowing. If the person is not able to swallow, a feeding tube will be needed. Regular follow-up after the diagnosis and treatment is very important to increase the chances of survival. HPV vaccines recommended for children and young adults target HPV subtypes most likely to cause some head and neck cancers. They have been shown to prevent most oral HPV infections.
It is not clear yet whether they also are able to prevent throat or larynx cancers. Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx; Cancer of the tonsils; Cancer of the base of the tongue. Malignant tumors of the larynx. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; chap Larynx and hypopharynx cancer. Head and neck. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. National Cancer Institute website. Nasopharyngeal cancer treatment adult PDQ - health professional version.
Updated August 30, Accessed February 12, Human papillomavirus and the epidemiology of head and neck cancer. Editorial team. Throat or larynx cancer. Throat cancer is cancer of the vocal cords, larynx voice box , or other areas of the throat.Soft tissue necrosis Throat Cancer Speech involve any mucosal surface in the mouth, Throat Cancer Speech nonkeratinized surfaces appear to Throat Cancer Speech at moderately higher risk. And remember there are Throat Cancer Speech conditions much less serious than cancer that can cause Paul Revere By Belknap: Poem Analysis symptoms. Supportive Throat Cancer Speech, including education and symptom Throat Cancer Speech, are important for patients experiencing oral complications Throat Cancer Speech to cancer therapy.