❤❤❤ Art Deco Style Analysis
Winckelmann's writings Art Deco Style Analysis were the beginnings of art criticism. Neoclassical — to Art Deco Style Analysis from Palladian architecture, Neoclassical has references to classical Greek and Roman architecture. Richard Wollheim distinguishes three approaches: the Realist, whereby aesthetic quality is an absolute value Art Deco Style Analysis of any human view; the Objectivist, whereby it is also an Art Deco Style Analysis value, but is dependent on Is Technology Affecting Us? Art Deco Style Analysis experience; and the Relativist position, whereby Art Deco Style Analysis is not an Art Deco Style Analysis value, but depends on, and varies with, the human Art Deco Style Analysis of different humans. Most Art Deco Style Analysis the buildings from those years are prone to catastrophe, Symbolism In The Highwayman Bucharest is located in an earthquake zone. Art Deco Style Analysis Learn how and when to remove this template message. Delivered directly to your email. See: Prehistoric Art Timeline. Art Deco Style Analysis style, not period or regional style, Art Deco Style Analysis Shahn's canvas apart from O'Keeffe's. Thus, someone might specialize in "19th-century German architecture Art Deco Style Analysis or in Art Deco Style Analysis Tuscan sculpture.
Art Deco Graphic Design: Let's Talk About This Trend
They are also in charge of creating the subject matter, whether it is figurative or abstract art. See how the basic geometry is used as such in De Stijl paintings of Piet Mondrian. On other side, cubism of Georges Braque leans onto these geometric shapes, but it uses them as foundation to build recognizable objects. Without color, there would be no art. Color sets the atmosphere in a painting, it describes emotions best, while styles such as Impressionism are based almost solely on color. Color is the direct consequence of reflection of light and one of the most important elements of art.
Color hues come in a scale, but there are three basic colors — blue, red and yellow. When mixed, these three colors produce all other nuances of the spectrum. First characteristic of color is therefore nuance or hue, defining the color, in terms we define as red, green, yellow, orange and so on. Intensity is the next trait of this pictorial element, describing the clarity of the hue, in the range from bright, deep and vivid to dull or pastel. Intensity often refers to saturation or its purity. Value is the third characteristic of color, defining its lightness or darkness. Each hue comes in a span of shades, tinted with white to become lighter or shaded with black to turn darker. Value is the element of art responsible for the dramatic and emotional impression of an artwork, right next to color.
It refers to the lightness and darkness of a piece, regardless of its hue. Therefore, surfaces in a painting must be rendered in different values, even if the subject is all of the same nuance. Shading and tinting allow for the limitless transitions in surface rendering, and when executed skillfully, they evoke the natural appearance of things. Form is referring to the three-dimensional figure depicted in a painting. It is defined by illusion of volume achieved by the use of shadows and perspective.
Form as such is expected to have width, height and depth, and as in painting it is only an optical illusion, in sculpture it is the most important constituent. Forms, just as shapes, derive from geometry and can be cones, cubes, balls and similar, or from the natural world. Organic forms define all figures found in nature, from people, animals and plants, to other inorganic natural and irregular objects.
Art Deco was a modern and decorative style largely based on geometry, but the representation of form had a distinct three-dimensional characteristic, as seen in the work of Tamara de Lempicka. Texture describes the tactile quality of the painted area, or the illusion of that quality. Therefore, it can be tangible or painted — simulated, emulating what a real texture of a fabric, stone, wood, skin may look like. In classical arts, simulated texture was used to depict fabrics, objects and porcelain tan, but as the modernity progressed and new techniques were emerging, real, tactile texture became more and more common.
Texture provides richness, natural characteristic to the artwork, and its absence can be a deliberate statement as well. Texture in works of Van Gogh is just as important as their color. Thick and weighty impasto of Karel Appel emphasizes the expressiveness and emotion of his abstract paintings. Space is the area surrounding or filling the artwork and the painted subject. In additive sculpture, the artist builds up the forms, usually in clay around a framework, or armature.
Or a sculptor may fashion a mold , a hollow form for shaping, or casting , a fluid substance such as bronze. The ancient Greek sculptor who made the bronze statue of a warrior found in the sea near Riace, Italy, cast the head, limbs, torso, hands, and feet in separate molds and then welded them joined them by heating. Finally, the artist added features, such as the pupils of the eyes now missing , in other materials.
The warrior's teeth are silver, and his lower lip is copper. Michelangelo , unfinished captive, Accademia, Florence. Head of a warrior, detail of a statue from the sea off Riace, Italy, ca. Archaeological Museum, Reggio Calabria. In relief sculptures , the subjects project from the background but remain part of it. In high relief sculpture , the images project boldly.
In some cases, such as the weighing-of-souls relief at Autun, the relief is so high that not only do the forms cast shadows on the background, but some parts are actually in the round. The arms of the scale are fully detached from the background in places—which explains why some pieces broke off centuries ago. In low relief , or bas-relief , such as the wooden relief of Hesire, the projection is slight. In a variation of both techniques, sunken relief , the sculptor cuts the design into the surface so that the image's highest projecting parts are no higher than the surface itself. Relief sculpture, like sculpture in the round, can be produced either by carving or casting.
The plaque from Benin is an example of bronze casting in high relief. Artists also can make reliefs by hammering a sheet of metal from behind, pushing the subject out from the background in a technique called repousse. People experience architecture both visually and by moving through and around it, so they perceive architectural space and mass together. These spaces and masses can be represented graphically in several ways, including as plans, sections, elevations, and cutaway drawings. A plan , essentially a map of a floor, shows the placement of a structure's masses and, therefore, the spaces they bound and enclose. A section , like a vertical plan, depicts the placement of the masses as if the building were cut through along a plane.
Drawings showing a theoretical slice across a structure's width are lateral sections. Those cutting through a building's length are longitudinal sections. Illustrated here are the plan and lateral section of Beauvais Cathedral, which may be compared to the photograph of the church's choir. The plan shows not only the choir's shape and the location of the piers dividing the aisles and supporting the vaults above but also the pattern of the crisscrossing vault ribs. The lateral section shows not only the interior of the choir with its vaults and tall stained-glass windows but also the structure of the roof and the form of the exterior buttresses that hold the vaults in place.
Other types of architectural drawings appear throughout this book. An elevation drawing is a head-on view of an external or internal wall. A cutaway combines an exterior view with an interior view of part of a building in a single drawing. This overview of the art historian's vocabulary is not exhaustive, nor have artists used only painting, drawing, sculpture, and architecture as media over the millennia. Ceramics, jewelry, textiles, photography, and computer art are just some of the numerous other arts. Plan left and lateral section right of Beauvais Cathedral, Beauvais, France, rebuilt after Different Ways of Seeing The history of art can be a history of artists and their works, of styles and stylistic change, of materials and techniques, of images and themes and their meanings, and of contexts and cultures and patrons.
The best art historians analyze artworks from many viewpoints. But no art historian or scholar in any other field , no matter how broad-minded in approach and no matter how experienced, can be truly objective. Like artists, art historians are members of a society, participants in its culture. How can scholars and museum visitors and travelers to foreign locales comprehend cultures unlike their own? They can try to reconstruct the original cultural contexts of artworks, but they are bound to be limited by their distance from the thought patterns of the cultures they study and by the obstructions to understanding—the assumptions, presuppositions, and prejudices peculiar to their own culture—their own thought patterns raise.
Art historians may reconstruct a distorted picture of the past because of culture-bound blindness. A single instance underscores how differently people of diverse cultures view the world and how various ways of seeing can cause sharp differences in how artists depict the world. We illustrate two contemporaneous portraits of a 19th-century Maori chieftain side by side — one by an Englishman, John Sylvester, and the other by the New Zealand chieftain himself, Te Pehi Kupe. Both reproduce the chieftain's facial tattooing. The European artist included the head and shoulders and underplayed the tattooing.
The tattoo pattern is one aspect of the likeness among many, no more or less important than the chieftain's dressing like a European. Sylvester also recorded his subject's momentary glance toward the right and the play of light on his hair, fleeting aspects that have nothing to do with the figure's identity. In contrast, Te Pehi Kupe's self-portrait—made during a trip to Liverpool, England, to obtain European arms to take back to New Zealand—is not a picture of a man situated in space and bathed in light. Rather, it is the chieftain's statement of the supreme importance of the tattoo design that symbolizes his rank among his people. Remarkably, Te Pehi Kupe created the tattoo patterns from memory, without the aid of a mirror.
The splendidly composed insignia, presented as a flat design separated from the body and even from the head, is Te Pehi Kupe's image of himself. Only by understanding the cultural context of each portrait can viewers hope to understand why either looks the way it does. Lippincott, Art From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Art is the process or product of deliberately and creatively arranging elements in a way that appeals to the senses or emotions, especially beauty. In its narrow sense, the word art most often refers specifically to the visual arts, including media such as painting, sculpture, and printmaking. However, "the arts" may also encompass a diverse range of human activities, creations, and modes of expression, including music and literature.
Aesthetics is the branch of philosophy which studies art. Traditionally, the term art was used to refer to any skill or mastery. This conception changed during the Romantic period, when art came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified with religion and science". Generally, art is a human activity, made with the intention of stimulating thoughts and emotions. Beyond this description, there is no general agreed-upon definition of art.
The definition and evaluation of art has become especially problematic since the 20th century. Richard Wollheim distinguishes three approaches: the Realist, whereby aesthetic quality is an absolute value independent of any human view; the Objectivist, whereby it is also an absolute value, but is dependent on general human experience; and the Relativist position, whereby it is not an absolute value, but depends on, and varies with, the human experience of different humans. An object may be characterized by the intentions, or lack thereof, of its creator, regardless of its apparent purpose. A cup, which ostensibly can be used as a container, may be considered art if intended solely as an ornament, while a painting may be deemed craft if mass-produced. Visual art is defined as the arrangement of colors, forms, or other elements "in a manner that affects the sense of beauty, specifically the production of the beautiful in a graphic or plastic medium".
The nature of art has been described by Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". It has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exploring and appreciating formal elements for their own sake, and as mimesis or representation. Leo Tolstoy identified art as a use of indirect means to communicate from one person to another. Benedetto Croce and R. Collingwood advanced the idealist view that art expresses emotions, and that the work of art therefore essentially exists in the mind of the creator.
Art as form has its roots in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, and was developed in the early twentieth century by Roger Fry and Clive Bell. Art as mimesis or representation has deep roots in the philosophy of Aristotle. Usage The most common usage of the word "art," which rose to prominence after , is understood to denote skill used to produce an aesthetic result. Britannica Online defines it as "the use of skill and imagination in the creation of aesthetic objects, environments, or experiences that can be shared with others. Much has been written about the concept of "art". Where Adorno said in "It is now taken for granted that nothing which concerns art can be taken for granted any more[ In this sense, art is whatever is described as having undergone a deliberate process of arrangement by an agent.
A few examples where this meaning proves very broad include artifact, artificial, artifice, artillery, medical arts, and military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of the word, all with some relation to its etymology. The second and more recent sense of the word art is as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art. Often, if the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art.
Likewise, if the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it will be considered Commercial art instead of art. On the other hand, crafts and design are sometimes considered applied art. Some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. The purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically-, spiritually-, or philosophically-motivated art; to create a sense of beauty; to explore the nature of perception; for pleasure; or to generate strong emotions.
The purpose may also be seemingly nonexistent. The creative arts art as discipline are a collection of disciplines arts that produce artworks art as objects that are compelled by a personal drive art as activity and echo or reflect a message, mood, or symbolism for the viewer to interpret art as experience. Artworks can be defined by purposeful, creative interpretations of limitless concepts or ideas in order to communicate something to another person. Artworks can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted based on images or objects.
Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, emotions, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. It is also an expression of an idea and it can take many different forms and serve many different purposes. Although the application of scientific theories to derive a new scientific theory involves skill and results in the "creation" of something new, this represents science only and is not categorized as art. Theories In the nineteenth century, artists were primarily concerned with ideas of truth and beauty. The aesthetic theorist John Ruskin, who championed the raw naturalism of J. Turner, saw art's role as the communication by artifice of an essential truth that could only be found in nature.
The arrival of Modernism in the early twentieth century lead to a radical break in the conception of the function of art, and then again in the late twentieth century with the advent of postmodernism. Clement Greenberg's article "Modernist Painting" defines Modern Art as "the use of characteristic methods of a discipline to criticize the discipline itself". Greenberg originally applied this idea to the Abstract Expressionist movement and used it as a way to understand and justify flat non-illusionistic abstract painting:. Realistic, naturalistic art had dissembled the medium, using art to conceal art; modernism used art to call attention to art. The limitations that constitute the medium of painting — the flat surface, the shape of the support, the properties of the pigment — were treated by the Old Masters as negative factors that could be acknowledged only implicitly or indirectly.
Under Modernism these same limitations came to be regarded as positive factors, and were acknowledged openly. After Greenberg, several important art theorists emerged, such as Michael Fried, T. Though only originally intended as a way of understanding a specific set of artists, Greenberg's definition of Modern Art underlies most of the ideas of art within the various art movements of the 20th century and early 21st century. The art of Marcel Duchamp becomes clear when seen within this context; when submitting a urinal, titled fountain, to the Society of Independent Artists exhibit in he was critiquing the art exhibition using its own methods.
Pop artists like Andy Warhol became both noteworthy and influential through critiquing popular culture, as well as the art world, through the language of that popular culture. Certain radical artists of the s, s, and s took those ideas further by expanding this technique of self-criticism beyond high art to all cultural image-making, including fashion images, comics, billboards and pornography.
Utility and Purpose The purpose of Art has been discussed throughout the history of philosophy via the concept of beauty. Beauty, in this context, refers to the ability of human beings to experience and appreciate the visible object, regardless of the many different views of what is beautiful. Nearly every major philosopher has commented on art, including Aristotle, Plato, Kant, Bertrand Russell, and others. The different purposes of art may be grouped according to those which are non-motivated, and those which are motivated Levi-Strauss. Non-Motivated Functions of Art The non-motivated purposes of Art are those which are integral to being human, transcend the individual, or do not fulfill a specific external purpose. Aristotle has said, "Imitation, then, is one instinct of our nature.
Basic human instinct for harmony, balance, rhythm. Art at this level is not an action or an object, but an internal appreciation of balance and harmony beauty , and therefore an aspect of being human beyond utility. Next, there is the instinct for 'harmony' and rhythm, meters being manifestly sections of rhythm. Persons, therefore, starting with this natural gift developed by degrees their special aptitudes, till their rude improvisations gave birth to Poetry. Experience of the mysterious. Art provides us with a way to experience ourselves in relation to the universe. This experience may often come unmotivated, as we appreciate art, music or poetry.
It is the source of all true art and science. Expression of the imagination. Art provide a means to express the imagination in non-grammatic ways that are not tied to the formality of spoken or written language. Unlike words, which come in sequences and each of which have a definite meaning, art provides a range of forms, symbols and ideas with meanings that are maleable. They furnish an aesthetic idea, which serves the above rational idea as a substitute for logical presentation, but with the proper function, however, of animating the mind by opening out for it a prospect into a field of kindred representations stretching beyond its ken. Universal communication. Art allows the individual to express things toward the world as a whole.
Earth Artists often create art in remote locations that will never be experienced by another person. The practice of placing a cairn, or pile of stones at the top of a mountain, is an example. Note: This need not suggest a particular view of God, or religion. Art created in this way is a form of communication between the individual and the world as a whole. Ritualistic and symbolic functions. In many cultures, art is used in rituals, performances and dances as a decoration or symbol. While these often have no specific utilitarian motivated purpose, anthropologists know that they often serve a purpose at the level of meaning within a particular culture.
This meaning is not furnished by any one individual, but is often the result of many generations of change, and of a cosmological relationship within the culture. Motivated Functions of Art The purposes of art which are motivated refer to intentional, conscious actions on the part of the artists or creator. These may be to bring about political change, to comment on an aspect of society, to convey a specific emotion or mood, to address personal psychology, to illustrate another discipline, to with commercial arts to sell a product, or simply as a form of communication.
Art, at its simplest, is a form of communication. As most forms of communication have an intent or goal directed toward another individual, this is a motivated purpose. Illustrative arts, such as scientific illustration, are a form of art as communication. Maps are another example. However, the content need not be scientific. Emotions, moods and feelings are also communicated through art. Art as Entertainment.
Art may seek to bring about a particular emotion or mood, for the purpose of relaxing or entertaining the viewer. This is often the function of the art industries of Motion Pictures and Video Games. The Avante-Garde. Art for political change. One of the defining functions of early twentieth century art has been to use visual images to bring about political change. The art movements which had this goal - Dadaism, Surrealism, Russian Constructivism, and Abstract Expressionism, among others - are collectively referred to as the avante-garde arts.
I loathe it, for it is made up of mediocrity, hate, and dull conceit. It is this attitude which today gives birth to these ridiculous books, these insulting plays. Art for psychological and healing purposes. Art is also used by art therapists, psychotherapists and clinical psychologists as art therapy. The Diagnostic Drawing Series, for example, is used to determine the personality and emotional functioning of a patient. The end product is not the principal goal in this case, but rather a process of healing, through creative acts, is sought. The resultant piece of artwork may also offer insight into the troubles experienced by the subject and may suggest suitable approaches to be used in more conventional forms of psychiatric therapy.
While similar to art for political change, subversive or deconstructivist art may seek to question aspects of society without any specific political goal. In this case, the function of art may be simply to criticize some aspect of society. Graffiti art and other types of street art are graphics and images that are spray-painted or stencilled on publicly viewable walls, buildings, buses, trains, and bridges, usually without permission. Certain art forms, such as graffiti, may also be illegal when they break laws in this case vandalism. Art for propaganda, or commercialism. Art is often utilized as a form of propaganda, and thus can be used to subtly influence popular conceptions or mood.
In a similar way, art which seeks to sell a product also influences mood and emotion. In both cases, the purpose of art here is to subtly manipulate the viewer into a particular emotional or psychological response toward a particular idea or object. The functions of art described above are not mutually exclusive, as many of them may overlap. For example, art for the purpose of entertainment may also seek to sell a product, i. One of the central challenges of post-modern art after the s , is that as the world becomes increasingly utilitarian, functional, and market-driven, the presence of the non-motivated arts, or art which is ritualistic or symbolic, becomes increasingly rare.
It is common in the history of art for people to dispute whether a particular form or work, or particular piece of work counts as art or not. In fact for much of the past century the idea of art has been to simply challenge what art is. Conceptual art often intentionally pushes the boundaries of what counts as art. Philosopher David Novitz has argued that disagreement about the definition of art are rarely the heart of the problem.
Rather, "the passionate concerns and interests that humans vest in their social life" are "so much a part of all classificatory disputes about art" Novitz, According to Novitz, classificatory disputes are more often disputes about our values and where we are trying to go with our society than they are about theory proper. In , Arthur Danto, suggested a thought experiment showing that "the status of an artifact as work of art results from the ideas a culture applies to it, rather than its inherent physical or perceptible qualities. Controversial art Theodore Gericault's "Raft of the Medusa" , was a social commentary on a current event, unprecedented at the time.
John Singer Sargent's "Madame Pierre Gautreau Madam X " , caused a huge uproar over the reddish pink used to color the woman's ear lobe, considered far too suggestive and supposedly ruining the high-society model's reputation. In the twentieth century, Pablo Picasso's Guernica used arresting cubist techniques and stark monochromatic oils, to depict the harrowing consequences of a contemporary bombing of a small, ancient Basque town. Leon Golub's Interrogation III , depicts a female nude, hooded detainee strapped to a chair, her legs open to reveal her sexual organs, surrounded by two tormentors dressed in everyday clothing. Andres Serrano's Piss Christ is a photograph of a crucifix, sacred to the Christian religion and representing Christ's sacrifice and final suffering, submerged in a glass of the artist's own urine.
The resulting uproar led to comments in the United States Senate about public funding of the arts. In the twenty-first century, Eric Fischl created Tumbling Woman as a memorial to those who jumped or fell to their death in the attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, Initially installed at Rockefeller Center in New York City, within a year the work was removed as too disturbing.
Art, class and value Art has been perceived by some as belonging to some social classes and often excluding others. In this context, art is seen as an upper-class activity associated with wealth, the ability to purchase art, and the leisure required to pursue or enjoy it. For example, the palaces of Versailles or the Hermitage in St. Petersburg with their vast collections of art, amassed by the fabulously wealthy royalty of Europe exemplify this view. Collecting such art is the preserve of the rich, or of governments and institutions. Fine and expensive goods have been popular markers of status in many cultures, and continue to be so today.
There has been a cultural push in the other direction since at least , when the Louvre, which had been a private palace of the Kings of France, was opened to the public as an art museum during the French Revolution. Most modern public museums and art education programs for children in schools can be traced back to this impulse to have art available to everyone. Museums in the United States tend to be gifts from the very rich to the masses The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, for example, was created by John Taylor Johnston, a railroad executive whose personal art collection seeded the museum.
But despite all this, at least one of the important functions of art in the 21st century remains as a marker of wealth and social status. There have been attempts by artists to create art that can not be bought by the wealthy as a status object. One of the prime original motivators of much of the art of the late s and s was to create art that could not be bought and sold. It is "necessary to present something more than mere objects" said the major post war German artist Joseph Beuys. This time period saw the rise of such things as performance art, video art, and conceptual art. The idea was that if the artwork was a performance that would leave nothing behind, or was simply an idea, it could not be bought and sold.
Artists broadly identified under the heading of Conceptual art In the decades since, these ideas have been somewhat lost as the art market has learned to sell limited edition DVDs of video works, invitations to exclusive performance art pieces, and the objects left over from conceptual pieces. Many of these performances create works that are only understood by the elite who have been educated as to why an idea or video or piece of apparent garbage may be considered art.
The marker of status becomes understanding the work instead of necessarily owning it, and the artwork remains an upper-class activity. Forms, genres, mediums, and styles The creative arts are often divided into more specific categories that are related to their technique, or medium, such as decorative arts, plastic arts, performing arts, or literature. Unlike scientific fields, art is one of the few subjects that is academically organized according to technique. An artistic medium is the substance or material the artistic work is made from, and may also refers to the technique used. For example, paint is the media used in painting, paper is a media used in drawing. An art form is the specific shape, or quality an artistic expression takes.
The media used often influences the form. For example, the form of a sculpture must exist in space in three-dimensions, and respond to gravity. The constraints and limitations of a particular medium are thus called its formal qualities. To give another example, the formal qualities of painting are the canvas texture, color, and brush texture. The formal qualities of video games are non-linearity, interactivity and virtual presence. The form of a particular work of art is determined by both the formal qualities of the media, and the intentions of the artist.
A genre is a set of conventions and styles within a particular media. For instance, well recognized genres in film are western, horror and romantic comedy. Genres in music include death metal and trip hop. Genres in painting include still life, and pastoral landscape. One note: the word genre has a second older meaning within painting; genre painting was a phrase used in the 17th to 19th century to refer specifically to paintings of scenes of everyday life and can still be used in this way.
Any loose brushy, dripped or poured abstract painting is called expressionistic with a lower case "e" and the "ic" at the end. Often these styles are linked with a particular historical period, set of ideas, and particular artistic movement. So Jackson Pollock is called an Abstract Expressionist. Because a particular style may have a specific cultural meanings, it is important to be sensitive to differences in technique. Roy Lichtenstein's paintings are not pointillist, despite his uses of dots, because they are not aligned with the original proponents of Pointillism.
Lichtenstein used Ben-Day dots: they are evenly-spaced and create flat areas of color. These types of dots, used in halftone printing, were originally used in comic strips and newspapers to reproduce color. Lichtenstein thus uses the dots as a style to question the "high" art of painting with the "low" art of comics - to comment on class distinctions in culture. Lichtenstein is thus associated with the American Pop art movement s. Pointillism is a technique in late Impressionism s , developed especially by the artist Georges Seurat, that employs dots that are spaced in a way to create variation in color and depth in an attempt to paint images that were closer to the way we really see color.
Both artists use dots, but the particular style and technique relates to the artistic movement these artists were a part of. These are all ways of beginning to define a work of art, to narrow it down. How would you proceed with your task? One way to begin is to examine the materials each artist selected in making an object, image video, or event. The decision to cast a sculpture in bronze, for instance, inevitably effects its meaning; the work becomes something different than if it had been cast in gold or plastic or chocolate, even if everything else about the artwork remained the same.
Next, you might examine how the materials in each artwork have become an arrangement of shapes, colors, textures, and lines. These, in turn, are organized into various patterns and compositional structures. In your interpretation, you would comment on how salient features of the form contribute to the overall meaning of the finished artwork. Most interpretations also include a discussion of the ideas and feelings the artwork engenders. Art predates history; sculptures, cave paintings, rock paintings, and petroglyphs from the Upper Paleolithic starting roughly 40, years ago have been found, but the precise meaning of such art is often disputed because so little is known about the cultures that produced them.
The oldest art objects in the world: a series of tiny, drilled snail shells about 75,yrs old, were discovered in a South African cave. Each of these centers of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in their art. Because of the size and duration these civilizations, more of their art works have survived and more of their influence has been transmitted to other cultures and later times. They have also provided the first records of how artists worked. For example, this period of Greek art saw a veneration of the human physical form and the development of equivalent skills to show musculature, poise, beauty and anatomically correct proportions.
In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Western Middle Ages, art focused on the expression of Biblical and not material truths, and emphasized methods which would show the higher unseen glory of a heavenly world, such as the use of gold in the background of paintings, or glass in mosaics or windows, which also presented figures in idealized, patterned flat forms. The western Renaissance saw a return to valuation of the material world, and the place of humans in it, and this paradigm shift is reflected in art forms, which show the corporeality of the human body, and the three dimensional reality of landscape. In the east, Islamic art's rejection of iconography led to emphasis on geometric patterns, calligraphy, and architecture.
Further east, religion dominated artistic styles and forms too. India and Tibet saw emphasis on painted sculptures and dance with religious painting borrowing many conventions from sculpture and tending to bright contrasting colors with emphasis on outlines. China saw many art forms flourish, jade carving, bronzework, pottery including the stunning terracotta army of Emperor Qin , poetry, calligraphy, music, painting, drama, fiction, etc. Chinese styles vary greatly from era to era and are traditionally named after the ruling dynasty. So, for example, Tang Dynasty paintings are monochromatic and sparse, emphasizing idealized landscapes, but Ming Dynasty paintings are busy, colorful, and focus on telling stories via setting and composition.
Japan names its styles after imperial dynasties too, and also saw much interplay between the styles of calligraphy and painting. Woodblock printing became important in Japan after the 17th century. This led to Romantic rejections of this in favor of pictures of the emotional side and individuality of humans, exemplified in the novels of Goethe. The late 19th century then saw a host of artistic movements, such as academic art, symbolism, impressionism and fauvism among others.
By the 20th century these pictures were falling apart, shattered not only by new discoveries of relativity by Einstein and of unseen psychology by Freud, but also by unprecedented technological development accelerated by the implosion of civilisation in two world wars. The history of twentieth century art is a narrative of endless possibilities and the search for new standards, each being torn down in succession by the next. Thus the parameters of Impressionism, Expressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Dadaism, Surrealism, etc cannot be maintained very much beyond the time of their invention. Increasing global interaction during this time saw an equivalent influence of other cultures into Western art, such as Pablo Picasso being influenced by African sculpture.
Japanese woodblock prints which had themselves been influenced by Western Renaissance draftsmanship had an immense influence on Impressionism and subsequent development. Later, African sculptures were taken up by Picasso and to some extent by Matisse. Similarly, the west has had huge impacts on Eastern art in 19th and 20th century, with originally western ideas like Communism and Post-Modernism exerting powerful influence on artistic styles. Modernism, the idealistic search for truth, gave way in the latter half of the 20th century to a realization of its unattainability.
Relativity was accepted as an unavoidable truth, which led to the period of contemporary art and postmodern criticism, where cultures of the world and of history are seen as changing forms, which can be appreciated and drawn from only with irony. Furthermore the separation of cultures is increasingly blurred and some argue it is now more appropriate to think in terms of a global culture, rather than regional cultures. Characteristics Art tends to facilitate intuitive rather than rational understanding, and is usually consciously created with this intention.
Fine art intentionally serves no other purpose. As a result of this impetus, works of art are elusive, refractive to attempts at classification, because they can be appreciated in more than one way, and are often susceptible to many different interpretations. In the case of Gericault's Raft of the Medusa, special knowledge concerning the shipwreck that the painting depicts is not a prerequisite to appreciating it, but allows the appreciation of Gericault's political intentions in the piece. Even art that superficially depicts a mundane event or object, may invite reflection upon elevated themes.
Traditionally, the highest achievements of art demonstrate a high level of ability or fluency within a medium. This characteristic might be considered a point of contention, since many modern artists most notably, conceptual artists do not themselves create the works they conceive, or do not even create the work in a conventional, demonstrative sense. Art has a transformative capacity: confers particularly appealing or aesthetically satisfying structures or forms upon an original set of unrelated, passive constituents.
Skill and craft Art can connote a sense of trained ability or mastery of a medium. Art can also simply refer to the developed and efficient use of a language to convey meaning with immediacy and or depth. Art is an act of expressing our feelings, thoughts, and observations. There is an understanding that is reached with the material as a result of handling it, which facilitates one's thought processes. Traditionally skill of execution was viewed as a quality inseparable from art and thus necessary for its success; for Leonardo da Vinci, art, neither more nor less than his other endeavors, was a manifestation of skill.
Rembrandt's work, now praised for its ephemeral virtues, was most admired by his contemporaries for its virtuosity. At the turn of the 20th century, the adroit performances of John Singer Sargent were alternately admired and viewed with skepticism for their manual fluency, yet at nearly the same time the artist who would become the era's most recognized and peripatetic iconoclast, Pablo Picasso, was completing a traditional academic training at which he excelled. A common contemporary criticism of some modern art occurs along the lines of objecting to the apparent lack of skill or ability required in the production of the artistic object.
In conceptual art, Marcel Duchamp's "Fountain" is among the first examples of pieces wherein the artist used found objects "ready-made" and exercised no traditionally recognised set of skills. Emin slept and engaged in other activities in her bed before placing the result in a gallery as work of art. Hirst came up with the conceptual design for the artwork but has left most of the eventual creation of many works to employed artisans. Hirst's celebrity is founded entirely on his ability to produce shocking concepts. The actual production in many conceptual and contemporary works of art is a matter of assembly of found objects. However there are many modernist and contemporary artists who continue to excel in the skills of drawing and painting and in creating hands on works of art.
Value judgment Somewhat in relation to the above, the word art is also used to apply judgments of value, as in such expressions like "that meal was a work of art" the cook is an artist , or "the art of deception," the highly attained level of skill of the deceiver is praised. It is this use of the word as a measure of high quality and high value that gives the term its flavor of subjectivity. Making judgments of value requires a basis for criticism. At the simplest level, a way to determine whether the impact of the object on the senses meets the criteria to be considered art, is whether it is perceived to be attractive or repulsive.
Though perception is always colored by experience, and is necessarily subjective, it is commonly taken that - that which is not aesthetically satisfying in some fashion cannot be art. However, "good" art is not always or even regularly aesthetically appealing to a majority of viewers. In other words, an artist's prime motivation need not be the pursuit of the aesthetic. Also, art often depicts terrible images made for social, moral, or thought-provoking reasons.
For example, Francisco Goya's painting depicting the Spanish shootings of 3rd of May , is a graphic depiction of a firing squad executing several pleading civilians. Yet at the same time, the horrific imagery demonstrates Goya's keen artistic ability in composition and execution and produces fitting social and political outrage. Thus, the debate continues as to what mode of aesthetic satisfaction, if any, is required to define 'art'. The assumption of new values or the rebellion against accepted notions of what is aesthetically superior need not occur concurrently with a complete abandonment of the pursuit of that which is aesthetically appealing.
Indeed, the reverse is often true, that in the revision of what is popularly conceived of as being aesthetically appealing, allows for a re-invigoration of aesthetic sensibility, and a new appreciation for the standards of art itself. Countless schools have proposed their own ways to define quality, yet they all seem to agree in at least one point: once their aesthetic choices are accepted, the value of the work of art is determined by its capacity to transcend the limits of its chosen medium in order to strike some universal chord by the rarity of the skill of the artist or in its accurate reflection in what is termed the zeitgeist.
Communication Art is often intended to appeal and connect with human emotion. It can arouse aesthetic or moral feelings, and can be understood as a way of communicating these feelings. Artists express something so that their audience is aroused to some extent, but they do not have to do so consciously. Art explores what is commonly termed as the human condition that is essentially what it is to be human. Effective art often brings about some new insight concerning the human condition either singly or en-mass, which is not necessarily always positive, or necessarily widens the boundaries of collective human ability. The degree of skill that the artist has, will affect their ability to trigger an emotional response and thereby provide new insights, the ability to manipulate them at will shows exemplary skill and determination.
Topic outline of art From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Art is skill used to produce an aesthetic result. Arts or the arts encompasses visual arts, performing arts, language arts, and culinary arts. Many artistic disciplines involve aspects of the various arts, so the definitions of these terms overlap to some degree. The term art also refers to the physical forms produced or performed using those skills, such as a sculpted figure, a poem, or a piece of music.
The following topic outline is provided as an overview of and introduction to art:. Painting genres History painting Genre works Portrait painting Landscape painting Still life painting. Get a Picture. Receive a picture in your email weekly! Today, it is common for artists to work in private studios and to create paintings, sculptures, and other objects commercial art galleries will offer for sale.
Greenberg originally applied this idea to the Abstract Expressionist movement and used it as a way to understand and justify flat non-illusionistic abstract painting: Realistic, naturalistic art had dissembled the medium, using art to conceal art; modernism used art to call attention to art.Collingwood Art Deco Style Analysis the Art Deco Style Analysis view that art Art Deco Style Analysis emotions, and that the work of art therefore essentially exists in the mind of Art Deco Style Analysis creator. Federal architecture — Art Deco Style Analysis Federal-style architecture is Common Themes Of Viking Invasions name for the classicizing architecture built in the newly founded United States. In Washington D.